‘Importance of this Election’ by A Christian Democrat (27 March, 1880)

The following is an editorial that appeared in the ‘People’s Journal’ under the name ‘A Christian Democrat’. The newspaper endorsed the Gladstone’s Liberals in the 1880 general election.

Sir,—Never in the history of Scotland was there so important an election as this. The question to be decided is not whether this or that candidate is a better speaker, a more popular man, or personally to be preferred to some other candidate. Electors should dismiss such considerations from their minds. Important and far-reaching principles are before the country.

I ask electors to say whether we are to pursue a domineering, overbearing policy towards Ireland. Are we to send more gunpowder, more police, more penal laws, or are we to send to our sister isle a message of peace and “goodwill?” A great country like ours can afford to be magnanimous. We can forget the veiled rebellion, we can overlook the unreasoning and unwise cry for separation, and for Home Rule in its foolish sense. I ask Scotchmen to remember the crimes, the insults, the centuries of cruelty under which poor Ireland has suffered, and to be large-hearted enough to forgive her impatience, Even when the cruel barb is torn out of the festering wound, time, the great healer, has to do its work. It requires slow gliding years to cover with grassy green the red scars of war, and long summer days to cover with flowers the graves of ancient feuds. Ireland will yet do justice to Mr Gladstone. Her heart is generous, although it still trembles with sad and cruel memories. Scottish men, it is for you to say whether you will follow Mr Gladstone in dispensing to Ireland kindly justice, in extending to her the hand of a loving sister, asking her on equal terms to share alike our glory and our cares, or to mock her with continued insults, and, instead of kindness, sympathy, and righteousness, to confront her with reproaches and continued indignities.

Again, I ask what good cause abroad has this Government ever sympathised with? Where has she spoken out for freedom, as Lord Russell did for Italy, as Lord Granville did for Belgium? How shall our missionaries go to Zululand with the Christian watchwords of “Peace on earth and goodwill to men?” Alexander Duff and Norman M’Leod spent their lives for India. How shall their followers tell the people in Afghanistan of the mercy and justice, of the truth and love of the religion of Britain? Men of Scotland, if you go to the poll and vote for Tory candidates, however excellent in private life you may know them to be, you become not only directly responsible for the cruel and unrighteous policy of the past six years, but you bid Lord Beaconsfield God speed. You bid him persevere in fighting all the little nations who can be destroyed without immediate danger, and go on alienating the sympathy of the great Powers, who, depend upon it, will one day rejoice when disaster overtakes us.

I accept the letter of the Prime Minister. I peril the election upon the issues he himself has raised. Whoever is for Tory rule in Ireland, whoever is for Tory foreign policy, vote for the men who in years by-gone have supported the Government. But whoever approves of Mr Gladstone’s policy towards Ireland, whoever approves of his foreign policy, let them vote for Gladstonian Liberals. Sir, I am as zealous for the honour of my country as any Tory that breathes. They impose with brazen-faced audacity upon electors when they claim a monopoly of patriotism. I desire to see my country great and glorious; loved at home for order, liberty, justice; revered abroad for respect to public law, for regard to the rights of the weak; showing sympathy with freedom, fearless of the scowl of the masters of millions of bayonets. It is because these are my aspirations, my ardent desires, that I so love the greatest statesman England ever saw—a man who in his living eye, in his uplifted hand, in his tongue of fire, is the impersonation of expression of all that is true and noble in English history; the exponent of a policy wise, conservative, and worthy of the genius of Edmund Burke, of the sagacity of Sir Robert Peel; a man whose monument the children of those who now vilify and reproach him shall build in purest marble, and crown with wreaths of laurel.

A Christian Democrat.

‘The Duty of the Electors’ by A Christian Democrat (20 March, 1880)

The following is an editorial that appeared in the ‘People’s Journal’ under the name ‘A Christian Democrat’. The newspaper endorsed the Gladstone’s Liberals in the 1880 general election.

Sir,—A great crisis in the history of our country calls upon all men to act.

When this Government took office electors were not asked their opinion on foreign affairs. Now, however, if I vote for a supporter of the Government I take my share of the responsibility for the cruel and unjust wars in which Britain has been engaged, and directly encourage the Government to go on in their unrighteous course. I ask electors to rise superior to personal considerations. The candidates of the Government may, in private life, be most estimable, but if they favour the foreign policy of the Government they shall have no vote of mine. Sir, I consider that the liberation of the Church from State patronage and control is a most important matter. I think temperance legislation even more pressing. I am anxious to sea the county franchise settled on a just basis. I do not think any of these questions unimportant. Sir, I ask how can Parliament ever devote itself to questions of domestic legislation or to Irish wrongs while a foreign policy of bluster and supremacy, of glory and gunpowder is pursued? The thing is impossible; and, therefore, I urge on all friends of domestic reform now to join in turning out this Government which, by its wasteful expenditure and its blustering foreign policy, renders all salutary home legislation impossible. Sir, I consider that the man who knows how to subordinate questions of importance, how not only zealously to labour but hopefully and earnestly to wait, shows a well regulated mind.

The question now above all others is the foreign policy of the Government. Lord Derby and Lord Carnarvon see the danger of this career of folly. Sir, this policy of Lord Beaconsfield resembles the vain-glorious crusade of the First Napoleon. It is far more worthy of a boastful new-made Emperor than of the solid sense and calm dignity of England.

I call on the thoughtful Christian men of Scotland to ponder the state of affairs to be swayed only by the high consideration of duty, and to vote only for men who can be relied on to put an end to this wasteful foreign policy, which is destroying the industries of our country, disturbing the peace of the world, and tarnishing the honour of England as a calm, just, and wise nation. Ireland known that from Tories she can only expect repression, insults, and indignities. From Mr Gladstone she will get justice and equal rights. It is the ambition of his life to strengthen the union with Ireland by just and wise legislation. He will strive so to act that Irishmen will be as wishful for the union as Scotchmen. He believes in justice, the Tories in bayonets. Mr Bright may in a Liberal Administration be Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, and were it no Her Most Gracious Majesty would be represented by a man of whom even Queen Victoria might be proud.

I call on all real Conservatives, on all men who desire to see Britain united at home, loved and respected abroad, influential for good the world over, so to vote as to enable the Queen to call her counsels statesmen who will uphold the moral greatness of England, give peace and confidence to commerce, and secure time for calm and serious consideration of the important home legislation which touches the welfare and happiness of our own people, but which during the past six years has been neglected, while Government has been chasing the ignus fatuus of foreign supremacy or wasting the resources of the country in an inglorious and happily unsuccessful attempt to bolster up the worst Government of modern times.

A Christian Democrat.

‘Scottish Characters — Jock Bouce, Sheriff Jameson’s Fule’ (5 January, 1889)

The following is one of a series of stories and anecdotes about local Scottish eccentrics. They remain an insight into the characters and exploits that had already passed into folk memory by the late 19th century.

John Younger, or rather jock Bouce, for that was the name he was most familiarly known by in and around Cupar Fife, was one of those half-witted, innocent characters so plentiful in Scotland in the earlier and middle part of this century. Bouce lived with his father at the Backbraebead, Cupar Fife, in a single-roomed house, and after his father’s death he still retained the house down to the time of his own decease, which was a very sad affair indeed, he being suffocated and burned to death in his own house. It was surmised that he had risen out of bed in the night time to replenish his fire with coal, and that in turning his back to the fire his shirt had caught fire. Helpless and aged, for he was close on 70 years of age when this occurred, he succumbed to his injuries. He was found quite dead lying on the floor of his house the next morning by his next door neighbour. This happened about eight years ago, and he was buried in the old churchyard in Cupar Fife.

The above sketch of Bouce represents him being shaved. It is from a photograph by Mr D, Gordon, Cupar Fife, and the picture on the contents bill is from a photograph by Mr R. Heggie, Cupar Fife. He was about 50 years of age at the time this was taken, and it will give my readers some idea of what like he was.

I shall endeavour to lay before you some of his quaint sayings and doing. Bouce was left at home by his father to look after the house one day, and to superintend the cooking of the dinner, which was Scotch kail and a well-stuffed haggis boiling amongst them. When his father came in from work they sat down to dinner. After they had had their kail Bouce’s father set about getting out the haggis. He stirred away n the pot, but nothing like a puddin’, as he called it, could be found.

“John! John! What hae ye dune wi’ the puddin’,” he asked.

“Ah tae do!” said Bouce, “D’ye think I ken, faither? It’s maybe up the lum for ocht that I ken. I believe the cat’s taen’d,” and diving below the bed he came out with the skin of the haggis, saying, “Eh, aye, faither, the cat’s taen’d, and here’s the skin o’t,” as though the cat would not have eaten the skin as well; but in reality it was Bouce who ate it himself.

It is as the Sheriff’s gardener, or rather “fule,” that Bouce can be seen best. The Sheriff was always very good to him, overlooking all his misdeeds and laughnig at his tricks. Many of Bouce’s jokes are forgotten by those who heard them at the time they were uttered; still I have succeeded in gathering a few of them from some of the old folks who remember him best.

Bouce was one day bedding a large pig belonging to the Sheriff, and it, resenting the intrusion of its domains, was buff, buffing at his heels, and he, thinking that the pig was crying “Bouce! Bouce!” stuck the graip with which he was spreading the bedding into the pig’s side, saying, “Ah tae do! I’ll Bouce ye if ye cry Bouce tae me, ye baste.” The pig had to be killed.

Bouce was carrying a young pig home to the Sheriff on another occasion, and meeting a man he told him where he had been for it. The man to annoy Bouce struck the sack on his back with the pig in it with his plumet stick, which, unknown to Bouce or him either, proved fatal to the pig. Arriving home Bouce put it in the cruive, when he discovered it was dead. Making tracks to get out of the Sheriff’s way, he met him full in the face. “Well, Bouce,” said the Sheriff, “did you get the pig?” “Yes, sir,” said Bouce. “It’s in the cruive.” “Come and let me see it.” “Ah tae do, sir!” said Bouce; “I’ve been owre lang already.” After some persuasion Bouce was induced to return with him.

“That pig’s dead, Bouce,” exclaimed his master. “Ah tae do! you’re richt, sir; it’s choked itsel’ wi’ the chinge o’ meat,” replied Bouce readily.

Bouce was tarring a paling one day, when the Sheriff, dressed in a fine light suit of clothes, leant against it, bouce dropped his tar brush and, clapping his hands, said, “Aff wi’ thae claes. They’re mine noo, sir, and folks should aye stick up for thair ain.”

Bouce get all the Sheriff’s soiled clothes.

The Sheriff meeting Bouce one day saw two bunches of his own grapes sticking out of Bouce’s pocket. “Where got you these grapes, Bouce?” he asked. “Ah tae do, sir!” said Bouce, “I never kent you had dishonest folk aboot ye. That maid o’ yours, Peg Milne, has put them intae my pouch, instead o’ Jock Tamson’s, the joiner. He’s her chap, ye ken, and he is working up at yer house. She made a mistake, the limmer, but I sanna mention’t.” Such was the case, as was afterwards learned, though Bouce kept the grapes.

A policeman was sent for to take Bouce to the Sheriff Court, where they dressed him in a red coat, and placed him at the bar. He was charged with stealing a quanitity of apples and pears belonging to the sheriff, his master, and now his Judge. Bouce blurted out, “Ah tae do! it wasna me, sir. It was Kate Wallis taen them awa’ in her milk pitcher ,and she telt me they were split yins.” Continue reading “‘Scottish Characters — Jock Bouce, Sheriff Jameson’s Fule’ (5 January, 1889)”

‘The Appeal to the Country’ by A Christian Democrat (13 March, 1880)

The following is an editorial that appeared in the ‘People’s Journal’ under the name ‘A Christian Democrat’. The newspaper endorsed the Gladstone’s Liberals in the 1880 general election.

Sir,—I appeal to the moral sense of the electors. The question which is asked at each voter is this, Has the Government of Lord Beaconsfield acted justly or unjustly? Have they done right or wrong? I was not responsible for the cruel and bloody wars they have waged. I was not consulted. I am not to blame for their support of Turkish misrule. I never voted on the subject. Now, however, I am called upon to vote. I am asked to ratify the policy of the Government. I am asked to share in their guilt, and to bid them God speed in their course of injustices and wrong. Electors can no longer waive the question, they are forced to pronounce their verdict and to take the responsibility of their vote.

Moderate and thoughtful men like Sir Kenneth Mackenzie feel compelled to come to the front and denounce the conduct of the Government. Men who are not known as politicians at all, scholars, historians, and men of science who retire from the arena of party battles, have one by one come forward to give their emphatic condemnation of the undignified and unsuccessful policy pursued by Lord Beaconsfield. Has Turkey been reformed? Are the miserable people who groan under the rule of the Turks happier or more prosperous? Have the designs of Russia been thwarted? On the contrary, she has gained far more than she ever expected; and the War in Afghanistan in which the country is now involved has been forced on by the increasing influence of Russia, whose influence it was the avowed object of the Tory Government to destroy.

The Government has been in power six years. They have had a splendid and solid majority. What reform have they carried? They are the avowed friends of the farmers. What measure have they carried for his relief? What have they done to improve or benefit the country? Taxation in heavier, wages are lower, work is more difficult to be got, business is unsettled, and anxiety and mistrust prevent trade from recovering.

In Dundee, in Fifeshire, in Inverness-shire, in Perthshire electors have a golden opportunity of destroying this Government so unworthy of all the great traditions of our country, and which has proved itself so utterly incompetent to deal with the great questions which it has mismanaged. Sir, I ask electors to scorn all interference with their freedom. This is too important a trust to be lightly tampered with. Let men of principle firmly resist all unrighteous and unjust pressure, and give their votes with a due sense of their responsibility, and I do not fear the [illegible],—I am, &c.,

A Christian Democrat.

‘Scottish Characters — Old Peter, A Deeside Notable’ (29 December, 1888)

The following is one of a series of stories and anecdotes about local Scottish eccentrics. They remain an insight into the characters and exploits that had already passed into folk memory by the late 19th century.

Old Peter was one of the best-known characters on Deeside. Redolent of the soil, he had all the characteristics of the pawky Scot. The keenness of his wit, the readiness of his repartee, and the humour of his stories made his name famous and many of his sayings proverbial over a wide district. But alas, most of the spiciest were too gross in subject and too coarsely treated to be fit for the reproduction. Sprung of a race of brawny blacksmiths, he dated his earliest recollection to fleeting from his father’s vengeance for some youthful peccadillo, and with childish, ostrich-like eagerness hiding his head under a cornstack, but leaving his bare posterior uncovered by its petticoats, a ready prey to the improvised tawse of the ragged ends of his father’s leather apron. Although bred to the business he preferred the free air to the stithe of the smiddy, and indulged his taste for roving by acting as drover to the Southern markets. He never wearied of telling how he evaded tolls and pontages by swimming his droves through the Tay or Forth, himself clinging to the tail of the hindmost steer, or the straits to which he was put to provide sustenance for himself or his flocks by the way, being reduced sometimes to dining off “cauld steer” made in the heel of his shoe—i.e., a little oatmeal mixed with cold water. But that he qualified his cold water when he could is told by the following incident:—On one occasion he was seen by a minister to whom he was well known, lying prone and drinking water from a roadside rivulet. “What are you dong, Peter?” said the minister. “O, I’m makin’ toddy.” “But where’s the whisky, Peter?” “O, i drank it last nicht, an’ noo I’m mixing them.” Once in his sweethearting days he won a wager that he would visit his ladylove one night after a fail of snow, and yet no one would suspect his nocturnal escapade. This he accomplished by tying his shoes on his feet heels forward, so as to leave all the tracks pointing away from the house.

By and by he married and settled down on a small croft in the midst of a wide expanse of moorland, densely covered with broom and whins. Here he developed into an expert smuggler and poacher. Knowing the haunt of every bit of fur and feather, he always kept the pot boiling. Successive lairds and keepers winked at his delinquencies for the sake of his independent bearing and conversational charm. After they had hunted the moor with varying but generally indifferent success. Peter’s grand chance came. “They’ll not be back to-day again.” So an hour after their disappearance he would shoulder his gun and soon return with a fat hare or a brace of partridges. He seemed to know exactly where to find them, but he had no compunction about shooting a hare on her form or partidges on the ground.  TO a neighbour he was always generous in sharing his spoils of the chase, often bringing a pail of hare soup and handing it with a mysterious air to the guidwife to be hidden from the youngsters, as he whispered—“Mony ane can tell a tale wha canna lift a lid.” Standing in a very exposed situation, his house formed a convenient outlook for the appearance of the gaugers, and all Peter’s ingenuity was often exercised to outwit them. Once having a sack of malt hidden in the barn, and seeing the gauger coming, he commenced taking one of his small stacks into the barn, and when the gauger accosted him with—“Well, Peter, have you anything concealed to-day?”—he said—“Oh, ay, there’s a sack o’ maut aneath the mow there,” at the same time leisurely and unconcernedly carrying in and piling the sheaves on the top. So impressed was the gauger with his nonchalance that he thought Peter was only chaffing him, and left without further search. On another occasion, seeing the gauger coming. Peter hastily buried a eask in the kailyaird, and was busily engaged hoeing his kail when the exciseman arrived. In these exploits he was ably seconded by his wife, who was an apt pupil. IN the cosy fireside corned a most canningly concealed contrivance existed for fermenting the wort. This when in full operation made considerable noise, so once when in active use a surprise visit of the gauger nearly led to detection. Ut the goodwife smothered her motherly feelings, and so persitently pricked her young child—an infant in arms—with pins that his noisy squalls not only deafened the gauger but materially shortened his visit. At another time, seeing a suspicious horseman approachong, she hurriedly donned a huge cloak, fashonable in those days, and concealing a “greybeard” of whisky under each arm, she walked thorugh a narrow footpath amongst the whins, dropping the compromising kegs in the thickest bushes, only to find on reaching a neighbour’s house that the suspicious stranger was the doctor! Peter had no love for children, and used to prompt the older ones when tired rocking the cradle to drop a pinch of snuff in the eyes of the infants. The effect was magical.

Peter delighted in a little “cow-couping,” and was perhaps as honest and veracious as the majority of that class. He firmly believed in the existence of some inherent defect in every animal offered for sale. “They either puttit or ate claes!” Once taking a rather lean animal to market, he was accosted by a probable purchaser, “That’s a gey thin ane, Peter.” “For as thin’s she is ye canna see through her,” was his ready answer. “Oh, I mean she’s gey an’ peer.” “Though she’s puir she’s no gettin’ aff the parish yet,” he replied again. Poter’s brusque satire made him dreaded, if not covertly disliked by his compeers. Of a man with an erect carriage he would say, “Ay, there he goes, carrying his head as if he owned thousands. Perhaps so he does—though they’re live stack.” He was a veritable Munchinsen as to his hunting, shooting, and fishing adventures, claiming as his own various ancient exploits—such as killing three wild geese at one shot with the ramrod left in the gun. Continue reading “‘Scottish Characters — Old Peter, A Deeside Notable’ (29 December, 1888)”

‘Imperialism’ by A Christian Democrat (6 March, 1880)

The following is an editorial that appeared in the ‘People’s Journal’ under the name ‘A Christian Democrat’. The newspaper endorsed the Gladstone’s Liberals in the 1880 general election.

“In their long defence of slavery in the British Colonies; in their open sympathy with the slaveholding confederacy; in their treatment of the black men in Jamacia [sic]; in their defence of the lash in the army for the back of the common soldier; in their constant insulting treatment of Irishmen, this Tory spirit has been manifested.”

Sir,—Imperialism is a hateful word to every true friend of liberty. Events have proved that the change in the style of the Sovereign was only too faithful a symbol of the change in the policy of Britain. Our Government has become Imperial in the very worst sense of that unwelcome word. The Ministers of England used to boast of her justice. Now they parade her power. Our statesmen used to speak of the duty England owed to humanity, of her homage to morality, her sympathy with freedom the world over. Now we hear only of British interests. War is declared, respective of the people. They are only consulted after a policy is adopted; and war is defended, not because the duty of making it could not be denied, but solely because some supposed interest of Britain required bloodshed.

The whole power of England is hurled against barbarous nations. Warriors are sent by express to ravage and destroy, and when they return from their inglorious work of devastation they are sent post haste to Balmoral to receive the congratulations of the Empress of India, and are awarded the honours of the State. Thus the Government ministers to the vainglory of the thoughtless who control elections thus they flatter the army and win favour from a Court which has always felt Constitutional Government, especially in foreign affairs, less to its taste than Imperial sway. More even than blundering misgovernment has this haughty, domineering, Imperial temper alienated and embittered the spirit of the Irish people, and turned millions of men into our bitter enemies. In India this same domineering spirit has now full scope.

Surely justice and wisdom alike should dictate a policy of kindliness, moderation, and goodwill. But this boastful Government, for the sake of displaying military glory and physical force, fling away moral influence, and pursue a course which ever reminds India of her subjection. Young Indian men are being educated in thousands. Their quick intellects will perceive that England desires constantly to remind them of their subjection as a conquered and inferior race. Every public document, every proclamation of the Government, every stamp of the Post Office will tell them that they are not our fellow subjects under a Constitutional Sovereign, herself subject to law, but that they are the conquered races who are dominated by an Empress. Continue reading “‘Imperialism’ by A Christian Democrat (6 March, 1880)”

‘Unnecessary Evils Connected with Honest Labour’ by A Christian Democrat (28 February, 1880)

The following is an editorial that appeared in the ‘People’s Journal’ under the name ‘A Christian Democrat’. This patronising letter exemplifies the paper’s aim to foster self-improvement among its readers.

Sir,— To win their bread by honest labour is the lot of the great majority. I do not consider this a misfortune. On the contrary, work is to us all a discipline, a privilege, and in itself far from injurious in any way. But, sir, workmen have often to submit to evils connected with their labour, which they feel all the more keenly that they know they are not necessary. Since I feel sure that many of these evils exist from pure want of consideration, I think much good may result from attention being called to them. First of all then, when a family is out of work there is no open labour market. Especially is this the case in country districts. The farmer has the corn market; the flax merchant has a weekly exchange; but for labour there is no proper open market. Employers would often be glad to buy labour which is abundant within a few miles of their works, while working people often sell their labour for less than its real market price. Strikes, too, are not infrequent from pure ignorance. To employed and employers alike a labour exchange would be a real advantage. The want of it leads to feeing markets in the country, and to arrangements (in towns) with foremen not at all favourable to the elevation of the operatives.

Again, in the best works persons out of employment are admirably met. There is a fire in winter, a comfortable seat, and a civil, kindly word, but in other public works the arrangements are very different. It is always a painful thing to refuse employment to a person willing to work, and when this must be done it should always be in a kindly way. In many country districts wages are still paid in public-houses. Woodcutters, labourers, and quarrymen often are so paid, and this is a custom fraught with countless evils.

Another and perhaps the very worst influence to which workmen have to submit is irregular employment. In many seaports engineers are made to work night and day to refit engines and boilers, then for days together they are idle. Sailors, miners, porters, and other whole classes of workmen are subject to irregular employment. More still, their work is generally far too severe while they are at it. A very littler arrangement would often obviate this irregular mode of working and save workmen from a strain which few natures can bear. All overtime, night work, and extra hours should as far as possible be avoided. When extra labour is needful care should be taken to secure relays of men, or where this is quite impossible, proper food should be provided. At a recent breakdown on a railway, which is usually well managed I found many of the workmen who for twelve hours had not tasted food except the bit of dry bread they had with them. Appliances for supplying hot milk, coffee, or soup are so simple that employers should see that they are at hand. At all great works they are sure to be required. Now and then managers think that there will be no more use for extra appliances. A dram of wretched whisky instead of good food is often given, not grudging of expense, it is pure want of taking proper thought a little beforehand. Continue reading “‘Unnecessary Evils Connected with Honest Labour’ by A Christian Democrat (28 February, 1880)”